Identification of any ancient structures/antiquities can be done on the basis of historic value and time duration. As per Assam Monument and Records Act 1959 and Ancient Monuments and Archaeological sites and Remains Acts 1958, ancient monument mean any structure, irrection or monument or any tumulus or place of interment or any cave, rock sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years. It also includes remains of an ancient monument, site of an ancient monument, such portion of land adjoining the site of an ancient monument as may be required for fencing or covering in or otherwise preserving such monument and the means of access to, and convenient inspection of an ancient monument.
The Archaeological exploration is conducted to acquire maximum retrievable information from the field within the given content of a well designed program of research. Initially, one of the main concerns of the Archaeologist is the study of artifacts and features. The artifacts includes stone tools, pottery, metal object etc. Features are non-portable artifacts such as monuments, graves, floors, hearths and other structural edifices that cannot be removed or recovered from their original cultural matrix. Later on Archaeologist started to give importance to eco facts in addition to artifacts and features. The artifacts (non-artifactual remains) such as animal bones, plants remains, soil and sediments were also taken into accounts as part of ecological approach which revealed many aspects of human past activities in human environmental condition.